The Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax (toll) Collector

Proper 25, Year C

Joel 2:23-32
2 Timothy 4:6-8, 16-18 
Luke 18:9-15

The first item below is the text of the Lectionary Gospel reading for this coming Sunday. My overly-extensive exegetical notes on the passage are at the very bottom of this post. There is far too much detail there, but on the upside, if you can't sleep tonight open up this page and try reading my endnotes for a while, and I promise you'll be bored into deep pleasant sleep within moments. 

Following the text are some more readable, general, thoughts on the passage and then a line-by-line commentary. Enjoy. If you have any additions or comments or know of a good taco recipe, feel free to leave a few words at the end. 

Luke 18:9-15

Exegetical and Translation notes

9 He also told this parable[a] to some[b] who trusted[c] in themselves[d] that[e] they were righteous[f] and regarded others with contempt:[g]
10 “Two men went up[h] to the temple to pray,[i] one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector.[j] 11The Pharisee, standing by himself,[k] was praying[l] thus, ‘God, I thank you that I am not like other people: thieves, rogues, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. 12 I fast twice a week; I give a tenth of all my income.’[m]
13 But the tax collector, standing far off,[n] would not even look up to heaven, but was beating his breast[o] and saying, ‘God, be merciful[p] to me, a sinner!’[q]
14 I tell you, this man went down to his home[r] justified[s] rather than the other; for all who exalt[t] themselves will be humbled,[u] but all who humble themselves will be exalted.”


General Comments:

This parable is the last part of Luke’s Travel account (9:51-18:14), and the beginning of a new section (18:9ff.). There are many themes in the parable that parallel others in Luke. First, there are those that contrast the behavior of two people. See 15:11-32; 16:19—31; Mt. 21:28-32).  Second, is the motif of reversal that runs throughout the Gospel. See 1:51; 6:20-26; 16:19-31. And finally, in addition to its being about two separate types of piety, it also reflects Jesus’ ongoing concern for those who were forgotten or disdained in Palestinian society. See 5:29-32; 7:36-50.
It is a story that has no parallel in the other gospels, and according to most commentators, it is derived (like much before it) from Luke’s special source (“L”). Some commentators (New Interpreters’, for example) have suggested that this parable is intentionally linked to the previous parable in last week’s Gospel reading (the one about the woman insisting on justice from an unjust judge) because both are related to the theme of prayer. The first parable’s theme was that we should pray incessantly and never give up. This one is that we should pray for mercy. Interpreter’s quotes Peter Rhea Jones’ characterization of the two parables as ‘the promise of persistent prayer’ (18:1-8) and ‘the peril of presumptuous prayer’ (vv. 9-14).[v] “The first is a word of encouragement,” says Raymond Bailey, “to those who may find themselves in despair; the second is directed to those who err on the side of spiritual self-sufficiency.”[w] It’s an interesting theory, but for what it’s worth, Fitzmyer, in his commentary rejects it. And in any case, few, if any, believe that Jesus told them back to back in the way they are found here. Luke most likely wanted to show two different problems with prayer, one the despair at not hearing an answer and the other of being too full of oneself while praying. As such they could lend themselves to pairing in a sermon. “Most congregations,” Bailey says, “will include persons all along the spectrum who struggle with the efficacy of prayer and prayer as an instrument of transformation.”[x]
In my personal experience, many (perhaps most) of my parishioners have felt the first problem more often than the second. That is, they have been taught (or believe genetically) that when they pray for God to alleviate their pain or hardship or suffering, God will do it. Of course, in real life God seldom, if ever, does that. So their faith gets challenged and they lean towards quitting believing or quitting praying. It’s an unnecessary choice, but forced on them by a belief in a magical instead of spiritual religion. I’ve personally preached and counseled against magical religion in all of my churches for over forty years and I have yet to meet one person who I have convinced. People just can’t (don’t want to) let go of the notion of a God who will heal my mother in the hospital and they can’t (easily, without work) conceive of any other definition of “faith” that does not include magic. It may well be that the failure of magical religion is at least one of the key driving forces in the decline of faith and churches today.
The actual boundaries of the parable itself are usually said to be vv. 10-14a. Verses 9 and 14 b are probably additions, and probably added by Luke himself. They are said to be commentary on the parable and not part of the parable itself.
Verse 14b usually thought of as a “doublet,” by which they do not mean a snug British jacket with double lining, but a phrase or aphorism repeated twice within the same Gospel or Gospel tradition (like “Q”). The other half of the doublet is found in Luke 14:11 (where it is paired with Matthew 23:12 and both are drawn from “Q”)[y]
Luke 14:11, “For all who exalt themselves will be humbled, and those who humble themselves will be exalted.”
Mt. 23:12, “All who exalt themselves will be humbled, and all who humble themselves will be exalted.”

      Joseph Fitzmyer (Anchor Bible Series) thinks it unlikely that Luke added the line to end the parable. Instead, he suspects that Luke found it in a general form in his sources (“L” since this story is not found in either Mark or Matt.), and perhaps redacted it a bit to make it sound more like Luke 14:11. In general, Fitzmyer says, Luke does not care much for “doublets,” and wouldn’t typically create one on his own.[z] Other passages to which this parable has some connection include:
1.       Luke 15, the chapter with the “lost” parables. Because of its emphasis on mercy.
2.       Luke 5:29-32, the story of Jesus being invited to a meal with the toll collectors and the self-righteous Pharisees chastising him for it.
Another thing that is unclear in the passage, and possibly more important, is to whom Jesus was speaking (see my exegetical notes on v. 9). Is he speaking to a group of Pharisees who were vain bloviators, or simply talking about them? And he isn’t really suggesting that only Pharisees were like this (after all, his own disciples were guilty of a little elitism on occasion), or even that all of them did it. The addition of his favorite expression at the end, “all who exalt themselves will be humbled, but all who humble themselves will be exalted” disallows an application of the parable to any one group.
Given that there was a strong pursuit of righteousness (and self-righteousness) among the Pharisees and religious leaders of his time, it is likely that people occasionally (or often) called on Jesus to weigh in on the subject of prayer. It is possible that this story reflects his opinion on that contemporary debate. Fitzmyer agrees, saying that “this parable records his [Jesus’] attitude toward such a pursuit”[aa]
The emphasis on righteousness being achieved by confession of sin sounds like Paul (who may have been a colleague of Luke’s). While, on the one hand, as Jeremias says, “the Pauline doctrine of justification has its roots in the teaching of Jesus”[bb] on the other hand, as Fitzmyer says, “it’s still a far cry from justification by grace through faith,”[cc] meaning that neither one go as far as Martin Luther and Lutheran theology. No reference to the saving act of the cross. It is justification rooted in the Hebrew Scriptures. It never transcends, or goes beyond, the theology of the Old Testament. Craddock adds that this theology “is as old as the Garden of Eden, the tower of Babel and Jonah’s mission to Nineveh.”[dd]
The story of the Pharisee and the Toll Collector appeals to people because it connects to real life (though exaggerated), and may well have represented two authentic people. (See the prayer quoted below from a contemporary of Jesus in the Qumran community.) The story contrasts one person who believes that rigidly fulfilling the law will contribute to bringing in the Kingdom of God), and another who is authentically grieved over his behavior. One is proud of his good works and the other is ashamed of what he has done. One wants approval, the other wants forgiveness.
It might be interesting to reflect on the ways that politicians handle confession. Typically (though not universally) conservatives want to stand strong, not admit weakness and never ask for forgiveness. Liberals say that you can’t be strong until you stare at your shortcomings and admit them. Liberals want to admit that we have been a nation of slave owners and racists and war mongers and that in spite of our good things we have wreaked a lot of havoc upon minorities at home and other nations abroad. Conservatives are far more kind about our history and tend to say that we can’t dwell on the past we need and need to move on. Those are both generalities, but basically do describe our national stances on our past shortcomings. Are those positions totally political or do they represent something deeper and more theological? Is there a tendency within the conservative mind that blocks introspection? Is there a tendency within the liberal mind that wallows in it? Do conservatives tend to overdo pride and self-congratulation? Do liberals tend to succumb to self-deprecation and depression? And, is there a way of pondering that thought in a sermon without alienating one side or the other?

Verse by verse comments

Verse 9, “told this parable to some who trusted in themselves.”
The word pros (some or many), at the beginning of this sentence may indicate the persons to whom the parable is addressed or possibly the people ‘against’ whom it is directed (cf. 20:19). That the Pharisees are meant becomes clear from v. 10, and probably did not need to be spelled out here.[ee]
Verse 10 “Two men went up to pray, one a Pharisee…”
“Went up to pray” They went up from the lower city to the temple mount. “Whether coming from north, south, east or west, people always ‘went up’ to Jerusalem and the Temple was situated at the highest point in the city, above the Kidron Valley to the east and the older city of David to the south.[ff] The hours of prayer, when translated into our times, would be from about 9 am to 3 pm.
“Pharisee.” The Greek word, pharisaios, is telling, in that it means the “separated one,” “denoting their aloofness from others, including many other Jews.”[gg]

Verses 11-12   The Pharisee, “Standing by himself”
Implies taking up his position ostentatiously; striking an attitude. Normally people would sit down to pray.
It’s interesting to note that both prayers begin with the simple “God.” But the one of the Pharisee continues immediately in the first person, and the initial characterization of the Pharisee as someone who viewed others with contempt is born out by the words of his prayer.
Jeremias quotes an interesting parallel to the prayer of the Pharisee found in the Talmud of the first century. It shows that the prayer of our Pharisee is not impossible, and perhaps not even unusual:
I thank thee, O Lord, my God, that thou hast given me my lot with those who sit in the seat of learning, and not with those who sit at the street-corners; for I am early to work, and they are early to work; I am early to work on the words of the Torah, and they are early to work on things of no moment. I weary myself, and they weary themselves; I weary myself and profit thereby, while they weary themselves to no profit. I run and they run; I run towards the life of the Age to Com, and they run towards the pit of destruction.[hh]
      Matthew 6:5
“... whenever you pray, do not be like the hypocrites; for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and at the street corners, so that they may be seen by others....” See also Mark 11:25.
      “I fast twice a week”
“While the law prescribed only one annual fast, namely that on the Day of Atonement, he fasted voluntarily twice a week, on Monday and Thursday, probably in intercession for the sins of the people.”[ii] Wanting to distance themselves from the Pharisees, the early Christians chose different days on which to fast. The Didache (about the year 120), said to Christians, “Let not your fasts be with the hypocrites, for they fast on Mondays and Thursdays, but do you fast on Wednesdays and Fridays.”[jj]
“I give a tenth of all of my income”
For examples and teachings on tithing, see Luke 11:42; Gen. 14:20; Num 18:21-24; Deut 14:22-26; Mal 3:8-10. Interesting to note that “the Pharisee does not just offer a tithe on those foods or animals for which a tithe is specifically required, but tithes all of is income.”[kk]
Note that Jesus “does not dispute the toll collector’s self-evaluation: the man is correct—he is a ‘sinner.’ And Jesus does not dispute the Pharisee’s self-evaluation—he does fast and give tithes, and in this respect he is different from the notorious ‘sinners’ whom he meets.”[ll]

Verse 13 “But the tax collector, standing far off…”
      “Tax collector”:
Publicani were tax-farmers who bid on contracts to collect taxes in the provinces. ‘These publicani paid the stipulated sum-total of the impost directly into the Roman treasury and recouped themselves in the provinces by means of their trained staffs of collectors.’ In essence, having paid the tax up front, they subsequently extorted what they could from the populace, keeping the difference as profit.”[mm]
“The public revenues of the Greeks and Romans were usually farmed out. Among the latter, the purchasers were chiefly of the equestrian order and were distinguished as being of a higher class because they rode horses, or they were at least persons of wealth and rank like Zacchaeus who is called the chief tax collector (architelṓnēs ) in Luke19:2). These farmers also had subcontractors or employed agents who collected the taxes and customs at the gates of cities, in seaports, on public ways and bridges. These, too, were called telṓnai (pl.), publicans, or eklégontes (n.f.), (from ek , out of, and légō , in its original sense meaning to collect), those who collected out of the people. Such publicans in countries subject to the Roman Empire were the objects of hatred and detestation so that none but persons of worthless character were likely to be found in this employment. They were called hárpages (n.f.), extortioners, from harpagḗ, extortion. Chrysostom calls them kapḗlous (n.f.), hucksters, from kapēleúō, to retail, adulterate, take advantage of, corrupt, and pornoboskoús (n.f.), shepherds of fornication. They were also called kólakes (n.f.), flatterers, from kolakeía, flattery.”[nn]
Craddock describes them this way: He was “working for a foreign  government collecting taxes from his own people, a participant in a cruel and corrupt system, politically a traitor, religiously unclean (cf. 5:29-32)[oo]

      “Standing far off”
Note that the Pharisee stood upright by himself, while the Toll Collector stood far away from the crowd. Also, the accepted form of prayer was to look up to heaven when you spoke (cf. 1 Tim 2:8),[pp] which presumably the Pharisee did, but the Toll Collector could not bring himself to lift his head. Later Christian prayer practice adopted his praying style, and not that of the Pharisee, as the intent of prayer changed from pronouncements to God to remorse before God.
“Went down to his home justified.”
Down, literally “because the Temple lies on a hill surrounded by valleys except in the north.”[qq]
The “righteousness” which was gained by the Toll Collector in the end goes no further, in terms of redemption, etc., than Pss. 51, 24:3-5, or 2 Esdras 12:7. It shouldn’t be confused with the more advanced thought of Paul or that of later Reformed theology.
Jeremias notes that this passage is “the only one in the Gospels in which the verb (“to be made righteous”) is used in a sense similar to that in which Paul generally uses it. Nevertheless Pauline influence is not to be assumed hereOur passage shows, on the other hand, that the Pauline doctrine of justification has its roots in the teaching of Jesus.”[rr]
“God, be merciful to me a sinner”
The two psalms that are possibly behind the prayer of the Tax (toll) collector are 51 and 24:
Psalm 51:1-5
1 Have mercy on me, O God,
according to your steadfast love;
according to your abundant mercy
blot out my transgressions.
2 Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity,
and cleanse me from my sin.
3 For I know my transgressions,
and my sin is ever before me.
4 Against you, you alone, have I sinned,
and done what is evil in your sight,
so that you are justified in your sentence
and blameless when you pass judgment.
5 Indeed, I was born guilty,
        a sinner when my mother conceived me.

Psalm 24:3-5

3 Who shall ascend the hill of the Lord?
And who shall stand in his holy place?
4 Those who have clean hands and pure hearts,
who do not lift up their souls to what is false,
and do not swear deceitfully.
5 They will receive blessing from the Lord,
and vindication from the God of their salvation.

And finally…

Good quote from Joseph Fitzmyer about the concluding verse:
“If the thrust of it is to insinuate that the disciples should identify themselves with the toll-collector rather than with the Pharisee, it should be remembered that with all the willingness thus to identify oneself there undoubtedly remains in everyone more than a little of the Pharisee”[ss]

And this one from Fred Craddock:
The Pharisee is not a venomous villain and the publican is not a generous Joe the Bartender or Goldie the good-hearted hookerIf the Pharisee is pictured as a villain and the tax collector as a hero, then each gets what he deserves, there is no surprise of grace and the parable is robbed. In Jesus’ story, what both receive is ‘in spite of,’ not ‘because of.’ When the two men are viewed in terms of character and community expectations, without labels or prejudice, the parable is still a shock, still carrying the power both to offend and to bless. But perhaps most important, the interpreter of this parable does not want to depict the characters in such a way that the congregation leaves the sanctuary saying ‘God, I thank thee that I am not like the Pharisee.’ It is possible that the reversal could be reversed.”[tt]

[a] “The phrase ‘this parable’ appears at the end of the verse and is omitted in ms. D; without it the verse would begin, ‘Then he said to some…’” (Joseph Fitzmyer, Anchor Bible 28a, The Gospel According to Luke [Garden City” Doubleday, 1983], p. 1185)
[b] “To some who” This expression, pros timas, could as easily be translated “about some” as “to some.” Is Jesus talking about people who pray this way, or to those people? “It may indicate the persons to whom the parable is addressed or possibly the people ‘against’ whom it is directed (cf. 20:19). That the Pharisees are meant is clear from v . 10, and did not need to be spelled out here.” (The Gospel of Luke: The New International Greek Testament Commentary, I. Howard Marshall (Grand Rapids: Eerdman’s: 1977), p. 678.
[c] “Trusted” (πεποιθοτας: πείθω peíthō) fut. peísō, aor. pass. epeísthēn, perf. pass. pépeismai, 2d perf. pépoitha. In the active voice, it generally means to persuade, particularly to move or affect by kind words or motives. In the passive voice, it means to assent to. In the 2nd perf. (pépoitha), it can mean trust, as it is usually translated here. For other similar uses, cf. Mar 10:24; Luke 11:22; 2Co 1:9; Heb 2:13. Ezekiel also criticized his people for “trusting” in their own “righteousness (33:13).
[d] “Who trusted in themselves” (πεποιθότας ἐφ᾿ ἑαυτοῖς) Jeremias believes that this expression is meant to say that they trusted in themselves instead of God. (Joachim Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, Rev. Ed. 1972), p. 139. If that is the case, says I. H. Marshall, then the following hóti must be translated “because” rather than “that.” “That” gives the content of their self-confidence. “Because” gives the reason for their self-confidence. (Marshall, NIGTC, p. 678-679)
[e] “That” (ὅτι hóti) Conj. That (demonstrative), because (causal).
[f] “Righteous” (δίκαιος dikaios) δικαιοι , n. masc. from díkē (G1349), right, just. Upright, virtuous, keeping the commandments. When used, as here, in the masc., it refers to the one who acts conformably to justice and right without any deficiency or failure, as the Pharisee here seems to see himself. It can occasionally be applied to God (John17:25; Rom 3:26), Christ (Matt 27:19, 24; Luke 23:47), and the self-righteous, as here. When so, it is usually rejected as being mere appearance (Matt. 23:28; Luke 20:20). Cf. 15:7, “There will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance.”
[g] “Regarded others with contempt” (exouthenountas tous loipous). ἐξουθενέω, past tense, active voice. From ek and outhenéō (n.f.). To despise, treat as nothing, scorn. The thought is found mainly in Luke and Paul. Jeremias, Op.Cit. p. 141, says it means more than just to see others with contempt, but “is much more severe.” For similar uses, cf. especially Luke 23:11, also Rom 14:3, Rom 14:10; 1Co 1:28; 1Co 6:4; 1Co 16:11; 2Co 10:10 .
[h] “Went up” (ἀνέβησαν, anabaínō); from aná, up, and baínō, to go. To go or come up, to ascend, cause to ascend from a lower to a higher place. Verb Indicative Aorist Active Third Person Plural. “Since Jerusalem stood on a hill, Píáâáßíù became the appropriate verb to use of visits to the temple. Daily prayer took place in the morning and afternoon, but at any time individuals might engage in their own private prayers.” (Marshall, NIGTC, p. 679).
[i] “To pray” (προσεύχομαι proseúchomai) From the prep. prós, to, and eúchomai, to wish, pray, offer prayer. In the NT this compound verb almost totally supplants the simple verb eúchomai in designating “to pray.” (Zodhiates, ed., The Complete Word Study Dictionary).
[j] “Tax collector” (τελώνης  telṓnēs) gen. telṓnou, masc. noun from télos, tax, and ōnéomai, to buy. “A reaper of the taxes or customs, tax-collector, one who pays to the government a certain sum for the privilege of collecting the taxes and customs of a district.” (The Complete WordStudy Dictionary, Zodhiates, ed, Chatnooga, TN: AMG International, Inc., 1992).
[k] “Standing by himself” (Standing: σταθεὶς  statheis). Lit. “Having been placed,” “having taken his stand.” “Standing was the common Jewish posture in prayer (Matt 6:5; Mark 11:25)” but the Pharisee “struck an attitude ostentatiously where he could be seen.” (A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament [Kreigel, 1930]. “In Luke always used of a person who is about to make an important statement (cf. v. 40; 19:8; Acts 2:14; 5:20; 17:22; 27:21)Here it may suggest that the Pharisee took a position where he could be seen by the public.” (Reiling and Swellengrebel, Translator’s Handbook on the Gospel of Luke [London: United Bible Society, 1971]). Jeremias says that this phrase can be translated, “took a prominent position and uttered this prayer.” (The Parables of Jesus [Scribner's, 1963]). “We are not told where the Pharisee stood, but the contrast with v. 13 would imply that he moved far to the front of the Court of Israel within the Temple precincts.” (Fitzmyer, p. 1186.)
[l] “Praying” The wording in Greek is such that the expression could be translated either as “standing by himself, was praying” or most interestingly, “standing, praying to himself.” “The majority of the evidence favors the reading, ταῦτα πρὸς ἑαυτόν, but internally the more difficult sequence seems to be πρὸς ἑαυτὸν ταῦτα. The latter was ameliorated to read καθ᾽ ἑαυτὸν ταῦτα, ‘[standing] by himself …’ Because of the difficulty of construing πρὸς ἑαυτόν (especially when the words stood next to σταθείς),  several witnesses omit the phrase entirely.” (Bruce Metzger, A textual commentary on the Greek New Testament, second edition a companion volume to the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament [4th rev. ed.] [London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994], p. 143.
It is interesting to note that in another context pros heauton would mean “With himself.” Robertson describes it as a “soliloquy with his own soul, a complacent recital of his own virtues for his own self-satisfaction, not fellowship with God, though he addresses God.” (A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament).
[m] “Fastgive” (νηστευω δις του σαββατου αποδεκατω) Present tense suggests habitual behavior, unlike most pastors.
[n] “Standing far off” (makrothen hestōs  μακροθεν εστως). Contrast with the Pharisee who was “standing by himself” (σταθεις προς εαυτον  statheis pros eauton). The Toll Collector is standing far off from the Pharisee, not from the crowd in the Temple (Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament).
[o] “Breast” (στῆθος  stē̄́thos) gen. stḗthous, neut. noun from hístēmi, to stand, pl. tá stêthē. The breast. Jeremias says that it should more accurately be “beating his heart because the heart was more properly seen as the “seat of sin.” (Parables of Jesus, p. 141). It should also be noted that there is a word that more properly means “breast,” which is not stêthos, but mastós.
[p] “Merciful” (ἱλάσκομαι, hiláskomai); from hílaos. To bring about forgiveness, be gracious, kind, gentle. The kjv translates this a propitiousness (which means to cover up, rather than to erase). This and other translations of this verb were instrumental in creating the notion among conservatives that redemption covers up our sins rather than eliminating or forgiving sins.
[q] “A sinner” (ἁμαρτωλός, hamartōlos) “The use of the demonstrative article before ‘sinner’ is significant, indicating that the tax-collector sees himself as ‘the’ sinner,’ the most despicable person present, the least worthy to pray. (Susan Eastman, Lectionary Homiletics, Vol. XVIII, No. 6, p. 27.)
[r] “This man went down to his home” (καταβαίνω, katabaino) contrasts with anabaino (“went up”) in v. 10.
[s] “Justified” (dikaióō) Contracted dikaiṓ, fut. dikaiṓsō, from díkaios (G1342), just, righteous. Since díkaióō means generally to received the favor of God, Jeremias suggests that this could be translated, “(he went home) as one to whom God had extended his favors.” (p. 414).
[t] “Exalt” (ὑψόω, hupsoō). Verb Participle Present Active Nominative Masculine Singular. From húpsos, height. to heighten, raise high, elevate, lift up. Generally, and especially in this case, to raise someone up in dignity, honor, or income.
[u] “Humbled” (ταπεινόω tapeinoō) Verb, future, passive voice, first person plural. From tapeinós. To humble, to make low, bring low, to bring into a humble condition, reduce to meaner circumstances.
[v] Alan Culpepper, New Interpreter’s Bible, Vol. IX (Nashville: Abingdon, 1996), p. 340.
[w] Raymond Bailey, “Twenty-third Sunday after Pentecost, Year C,” ed. Roger E. Van Harn, The Lectionary Commentary: Theological Exegesis for Sunday’s Texts, Volume Three (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001), p. 432.
[x] Bailey, Ibid.
[y] And perhaps in a much more altered form in Mt 18:4, “Whoever becomes humble like this child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven.”
[z] See Joseph Fitzmyer, The Gospel According to Luke, X-XXIV, Vol. 28A, Anchor Bible series (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1964), p. 1183.  
[aa] Fitzmyer, Luke, 28a, p. 1184.
[bb] Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus, p. 141.
[cc] Fitzmyer, p. 1185.
[dd] Fred Craddock Luke (Louisville: John Knox Press, 1990), p. 210.
[ee] The Gospel of Luke: The New International Greek Testament Commentary, I. Howard Marshall (Grand Rapids: Eerdman’s: 1977), p. 678.
[ff] Culpepper, New Interpreter’s Bible, 341.
[gg] Susan Eastman, Lectionary Homiletics, Vol. XVIII, No. 6, p. 27
[hh] Jeremias, p. 142
[ii] Jeremias, p. 140
[jj] Eastman, p. 342.
[kk] Eastman, p. 342.
[ll] Susan Eastman, Lectionary Homiletics, p. 27.
[mm]  M. Cary and H. H. Scullard, A History of Rome Third Edition, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1975, 1979), cited in Chris Haslam ,
[nn] The Complete Word Study Dictionary, Zodhiates, ed, Chatnooga, TN: AMG International, Inc., 1992
[oo] Craddock, Luke, p. 211.
[pp] “I desire, then, that in every place the men should pray, lifting up holy hands without anger or argument”
[qq] Jeremias, p. 141.
[rr] Ibid.
[ss] Fitzmyer, p. 1185.
[tt] Craddock, Luke, p. 211
c “Early rain” “The text is obscure. One scholar says that “early rain” could be teacher: the words in Hebrew are sufficiently similar. Whether or not this is the case, rain, justice and teaching are connected in Isaiah 30:19-26; 1 Kings 8:35-36; 2 Chronicles 6:26-27.” (Haslam,
[uu] “Vindication” Or “righteousness.”
d Ch 3.1 in Heb
[vv] “All flesh”: To Joel, this meant Jews. For Peter (Acts 2:17), it included all nationalities and ethnic groups.